In this blog post, we will discuss “What are 4 causes of air pollution?” Firstly, we will learn about the basics of air pollution. Then, the article will focus on the 4 causes of air pollution. In the end, the article will provide detailed solutions to improve air quality.
What are the 4 causes of air pollution?
Air pollution can cause detrimental side effects to the humans and rest of the world. It can cause crop productivity loss, degrade human health, and loss of biodiversity. Air pollution also drives climate change. The causes of air pollution are as follows:
- Transportation Sector
- Natural Air pollution
- Indoor Air Pollution
- Industries and Energy Sector
- Let’s learn about the basics of air pollution.
What is air pollution?
The introduction of harmful agents into the atmosphere is known as air pollution. The toxic agents are known as pollutants. These pollutants are derived from natural and human activities, and they can be chemical or biological.
Major pollutants present in the air are particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone (O3), NO2, SO2, and CO. Air also has lead, allergens, bacteria, viruses and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Besides climate change, air pollution has become a significant environmental risk to human health.
What is AQI, and what levels make it unhealthy?
WHO has set up the air quality guidelines to regulate the emissions; however, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has calculated its own AQI to safeguard the public health of Americans.
Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has determined the air quality index (AQI) to know the air quality you inhale. The table given below will show how the air quality index looks like.
|Air Quality Index (AQI)||Levels of Health Concern|
|(When the AQI is in this range)||(air quality conditions are)|
|0 to 50||Good|
|51 to 100||Moderate|
|101 to 150||Unhealthy for Sensitive group|
|151 to 200||Unhealthy|
|201 to 300||Very Unhealthy|
|301 to 500||Hazardous|
The primary purpose of AQI is to inform residents about the impact of local air quality on their health. The Environment Protection Agency calculates the AQI for five major pollutants: ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.
The meaning of the Air quality index as mentioned earlier categories are as follows:
|Air quality is considered satisfactory; air pollution is of little or no risk.|
|Air quality is acceptable; some pollutants present in the air might be dangerous for a minority of people who are very sensitive to air pollution.|
|Members of sensitive groups may get ill effects. However, the general public is likely not to get affected.|
|This air quality level can pose a threat to everyone. However, members of sensitive people may experience more severe effects.|
|Emergency level of air quality; Entire population might be affected|
|Health alert: Every person breathing such air quality may get serious health issues.|
Thus, it is clear that excluding the first two levels are relatively good to venture out and to do various outdoor activities. However, the last three levels will give you or other adverse effects by inhaling dirty air.
Let’s see in deep the 4 causes of air pollution.
The top 4 causes of air pollution
Vehicles are one of the significant sources of air pollution. All vehicles generate toxic pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate pollution, etc. Besides, greenhouse gases are also emitted from the commutes. They account for 29% of US greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the transportation sector is the most significant contributor to GHG emissions in the United States. In addition, the combustion of fossil fuels like diesel and gasoline produces carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons that over warm the atmosphere and causes changes in the atmosphere.
As per the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the transportation sector is widely responsible for smog conditions. Such smog conditions lead to poor air quality, and it causes detrimental effects on citizens and the environment. The US EPA observed that over 55% of NOx is generated by vehicles while commuting. In comparison, less than 10% of emissions are from volatile organic compounds and particulate matter.
Ozone is formed when heat and sunlight cause chemical reactions between nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compounds. While atmospheric ozone benefits humans and protects the earth from harm, the artificial ozone layer formed in the stratosphere can threaten living organisms.
Short-term exposure to ozone can cause many respiratory ailments, such as inflammation of the lung lining. It can also reduce lung functionality. Brief exposure to ozone can cause shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, chest pain and burning sensation in the chest. Therefore, EPA has recommended not to exercise outside when ozone levels are high. In addition, exposure to ambient ozone causes asthma, bronchitis and premature mortality. Long-term exposure to ozone can permanently damage lung tissue.
It can also develop asthma in children who frequently exercise outside. Scientific evidence has proved that a weak immune system can cause asthma in children. The study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of 2010 stated that they examined around 181 children with and without asthma in the California cities of Fresno and Palo Alto. Researchers selected Fresno city kids as this city is known for poor air quality, Palo Alto has comparatively lower air pollution. Mobile sources such as cars and trucks are the leading causes of air pollution in Californian cities.
The research pointed out that sources such as vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) from the combustion of fossil fuels were responsible for weakening the immune system. Thus, such weakening of the immune system directly corresponded to asthma generation among kids and adults.
Another study published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 2018 has found out that airborne pollutants such as ozone and coarse particulate matter can cause asthma in children. They have also estimated that around six million children in the United States are sensitive to air pollution and can cause asthma. The study further highlighted that African American adolescents were more susceptible to air pollution than other children.
Natural phenomena consist of dust storms, wildfires and volcanic eruptions. As per US Geological Survey Volcano Hazard Program, there are approximately 169 active volcanoes in the United States. Most of them are situated in Alaska, and their eruptions can be expected nearly every year. Some are located in the west, and others are present on the Hawaii islands. Kilauea volcano in Hawaii is one of the most live volcanoes on the earth; it has been erupting almost regularly since 1983.
In 2021, the National Interagency Fire Center’s (NIFC) observed around 48,725 wildfires in the United States. These wildfires had burned about 6.5 million acres. Some of the major wildfires have occurred in California since 2000. While the two major ones happened in California last year, three have occurred in 2021. The dust storms are also prevalent in Arizona and the regions with scanty vegetation and barren land.
Volcanic eruptions release plumes of toxic gases and particulate pollution that are highly hazardous to human health in multiple ways. Even if the volcanoes release the most abundant volcanic gas, harmless water vapour, it also generates other gaseous contaminants such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and hydrogen halides.
Around 180 to 440 million tonnes of carbon dioxide are released from the volcanoes. Such high levels of CO2 can cause headaches and dizziness. Moreover, it can also increase heart rates and cause difficulty in breathing. Elevated levels of this gas can also damage vegetation; this can be seen in several areas of Mammoth Mountain. The sulphur dioxide released from these eruptions can also cause acid rains in the vicinity.
Contact with sulphur dioxide can decrease lung function efficiency and increase the risk of multiple respiratory diseases. The other symptoms of this gas are irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. It can also lead to premature mortality. Children and elderly citizens suffering from existing respiratory ailments are at particular risk. The sulphate aerosols released into the air can also combine with the particulate matter and irritate chest and chest pain. In addition, sulphur dioxide can dissolve in the watery fluid present in the upper respiratory system and get further into the bloodstream.
Wildfires releases a tremendous amount of black and brown carbon, organic carbon and particulates into the atmosphere. This pollution can get transported far away due to winds. Such kinds of pollution can cause haze conditions and reduce the visibility range. Dust storms also contain particulate matter. These matters contain particulates PM2.5 and PM10, whose diameters are less than the diameter of the human strand.
These particulate matters are so microscopic that if they are inhaled, they can cause serious health issues. Fine and ultrafine particulates can deeply penetrate the lungs and anchor them to the lung tissues. This causes chest pain and congestion. Such invasion of particles causes inflammation of the respiratory system, leading to irritations. Such kind of impairment of lung functions can result in many diseases. Besides, these pollutants can also absorb in the bloodstream, and thus the blood circulating in the body can be oxygen-deprived. It ultimately weakens the immune system.
Indoor Air Pollution
Many household activities such as heating, cooking, cleaning and other miscellaneous activities significantly contribute to indoor air pollution. Indoor pollution contributes to ambient air pollution. Many regular household products such as cleaning sprays, varnish, paints, solvent removers, perfumes, tobacco smoke and incense stick can pollute the air.
Asbestos can also cause deterioration of indoor air. It is found in various products such as home construction materials, and they are commonly detected in paints, coatings, ceilings and floor tiles. Generally, the old products or older houses would be having more presence of this toxic material than the newer ones.
Asbestos can cause shortness of breath, loss of appetite, chest pain, tightness and persistence of dry cough. But the good news is that the United States has banned its use in construction activities and it’s no longer used. Formaldehydes group are colourless gas having a pungent smell. Even though its production has been banned in the United States since 1970, they are still found in paints, sealants and wooden floors. Carpets also use formaldehyde as permanent adhesives.
Radon is one such toxic agent which is found underneath homes. Radon is usually discovered in bedrock and other building materials that cause indoor air pollution. The gases from radon can seep through the basement and cause a significant risk to the residents. Tobacco smoke is also one of the neglected and concerning air pollutants. The study also revealed that pregnant women smoking cigarettes caused a potential threat to the fetus development; the smoke can cause molecular changes. In addition, the tobacco smoke exposure of the mothers caused hindrances in the lung development of the fetus. Researchers further analyzed that such children at early stages and later teens got asthma or experienced asthmatic problems.
You would like to keep fresh flowers keeping in your living room. You also would be having furry friends living with you. Though I am not very keen on plucking flowers or purchasing them to decorate my house, I love doggies and other furry pets. But they all come with one big drawback. They can produce biological pollutants such as pollens, mould, bacteria, viruses and animal dander, developing asthmatic symptoms in people.
Gas appliances such as heaters, wood stoves, space heaters, dryers, fireplaces and space heaters release hazardous pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulates. Carbon monoxide and particulates, as mentioned earlier, causes many respiratory and heart-related ailments. High levels of nitrogen dioxide can cause a hazard to the human respiratory tract. It can increase the susceptibility to various respiratory infections and asthma. Prolonged exposure to elevated amounts of nitrogen dioxide can result in chronic lung disease. It can also affect the smelling ability of humans.
The fumes released from the paraffin wax candles causes air to pollute. Research done by South Carolina State University said that paraffin wax releases toxic chemicals such as benzene and toluene indoors. Even the office stationeries such as copiers, laser printers, correction fluids, etc., release volatile organic compounds which deeply penetrate the lungs and inflame their linings. Besides, dry cleaned laundry clothes contain highly toxic substances such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. All the pollutants, as mentioned earlier, can cause throat and nose irritation, flu, dizziness, anaemia and other allergic reactions. They can irritate your respiratory tract too. In addition, toxic chemicals can cause lung cancer and damage vital organs such as the liver, kidney and brain.
Industrial and Energy Sector
The various industrial process releases massive amounts of organic compounds, greenhouse gases, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and chemicals in the air. Researchers observe that considerably large amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, gets released in various production and manufacturing industries. Sometimes, industries might not use updated machinery and technologies in their process.
In such cases, outdated technologies can produce a large amount of toxic gaseous waste. The construction and demolition industry also has many airborne pollutants such as particulate matter in the air. Such activities can significantly contribute to the smog conditions and can affect visibility. In addition, the RMC or ready mix concrete plants produce hazardous VOCs and other toxic gases in the air while creating cement and mortar mix. The other pollutants released by overall all industries are HAPs or hazardous air pollutants, leading to health complications. It can cause cancer, autoimmune diseases, nervous system conditions, respiratory ailments, etc.
The energy sector is also one of the prominent contributors to greenhouse gases. In addition, the energy generation and consumption process can negatively impact human health. This is because fossil fuels like natural gas and coal are used.
Sulphur content coal produce plumes of sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, ash, black and brown carbon in the air. Sulphur dioxide can further initiate acid rains which damage respiratory and heart health. Again, the particulate pollution creates a hazy condition in cities and can often mix with ozone to make the air unhealthier to breathe. Such conditions can lead to asthma and chronic bronchitis in children and elderly adults. In addition, heavy metals such as mercury are released into the air. Such poisonous gas is a significant risk to the food web and can lead to bioaccumulation.
Nuclear power plants don’t produce the pollutants mentioned earlier, but their wastes are lethal. If the radioactive wastes are not properly disposed of, they can release many toxic gases into the air and soil.
Below, I am providing comprehensive solutions to improve air quality.
What can I do to protect myself from air pollution?
I will elaborate on some of the measures to protect yourself from air pollution.
You can also fight the effects of air pollution by maintaining personal hygiene:
- You can cut your nails short to avoid the accumulation of dirt.
- You can also practice mouth gargling after coming home to free your mouth from unwanted guests.
- You can also brush twice a day to keep airborne infections at bay.
- You can also take steam therapy at home to cleanse your lungs.
Smoking cigarettes, hookahs (shisha), electric vape or any other types of cigars are not at all suitable for your health. It’s best to stop smoking. Active and passive smoking provides the direct entry of harmful pollutants into your body. This causes the risk to your respiration and other organs dependent on it.
Physical activities have many benefits to your body. It not only improves your stamina and immunity levels but also helps to increase your lung capacity. Yoga, sanas, swimming, running, cycling, brisk walking and dancing are some of the best forms of exercise to improve your health.
The majority of people in the world don’t breathe properly. However, correct breathing techniques can keep illnesses due to air pollution at bay. A pranayama is a form of yoga asana which helps to improve breathing methods and lung functionality.
Some of the pranayama types that help you fight air pollution are Kapalbhati, Anulom Vilom, Chandra Nadi, Surya Nadi and Bhastrika. It is strongly recommended to learn this art of breath from a well-certified yoga trainer.
You can also increase your lung muscles by simply taking a deep breath and holding it for a count of 10. Then, slowly breathe out the air. If you can keep your breath for a longer time, then you have good lungs health.
Always go for a well-balanced diet to remain fit and strong. Consistent eating of junk and fast food will increase the risk of obesity and other diseases. In addition, such people are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. Instead, add more fresh veggies and fruits to your diet. Also, you can consume less meat to minimise carbon footprints.
You can also add anti-inflammatory foods as these types of food help to cleanse your lungs effectively. Anti-inflammatory foods which I recommend are:
Immunity booster drinks
You can do your immunity booster drinks by using readily available items in your kitchen. Immunity booster drinks help to cleanse your lungs. Some of the DIY immunity booster drinks are as follows:
- Take a glass of warm white milk. Add half a teaspoon of turmeric powder to it. Also, add two strands of saffron to it. Drink it at night before sleeping. You will get good sleep, and you will be relieved from chest congestion.
- Boil water by adding half cinnamon stick. Drink the spice-infused water once a day. Your sinuses would be cleared up.
- Buy an excellent green tea. Prepare a green tea by following the packet instructions. Have it whenever you feel irritation in your throat.
- Take some crushed 1 or 2 peppercorns, a half-inch of a blade of lemongrass and 1 inch of grated ginger and half a teaspoon of turmeric powder. Add everything in one glass of boiling water and reduce it to half a glass. Drink two tablespoons of this spice-infused warm water every after three hours. Adding honey is optional.
- You can also drink warm water and add honey if you want. Honey helps to relieve throat irritation.
Mask can prevent you from inhaling the polluted air. You would be able to work in contaminated areas without any fear of allergy infections and stress.
Masks I recommend
|Name||Why I recommend it|
|BASE CAMP CROSSDUST MASK||EAPI Filter Technology & Advanced NanotechnologyUser FriendlyMore Durable Six layers face maskFilter materials of the dust mask: Double-Layer Melt-blown with Electrostatic Adsorption Performance, Activated carbon, Non-woven Polypropylene|
|NIOSH approved N95 mask||Four layers mask Flexible nose pad, dual strapsDisposable maskEasy to breathe|
|BASE CAMP Reusable Cloth Face Mask||Three layers mask; 100% cotton Skin-friendly and breathablePocket to add additional filterReusable Mask|
How can I individually reduce air pollution?
You can always try your level best to minimise air pollution. The following are the methods to reduce air pollution at an individual level.
Encourage tree plantation drives amongst the communities. You can be a green saviour of your region. Trees are the natural air purifiers of the environment, and it supplies us with clean air.
Municipal councils or the local authorities can develop urban forests to increase the green cover of the locality. They can also plan to create vertical green walls to improve oxygen levels of the region naturally. But don’t forget to plant only indigenous trees.
Human/ religious celebrations in eco-friendly ways
Nowadays, many couples celebrate gender (of their baby) revealing parties by bursting firecrackers. But, unfortunately, these firecrackers can transform into massive wildfires if they are burst near trees.
Thus, you can celebrate such celebrations by planting trees in your nearby barren land. Bursting firecrackers on any religious, festive or personal occasion are only going to harm your loved ones.
You can also celebrate Christmas by not cutting Christmas Trees. Instead, you can buy artificial ones and use them in the coming years too.
Single-use plastic has been one of the major concerns in the environment. Plastic pollution indirectly contributes to the degradation of air quality. Plastic, when burned, releases various toxic gases such as dioxins into the air.
Encourage alternative use of the plastic product. For example, you can wear a cloth bag for shopping. You can also carry your travel cutlery set to a restaurant. Additionally, you can take your water bottle instead of purchasing a packaged drinking water bottle every time.
Use of public transportation
Increase the use of public transport to reduce air pollution and traffic congestion. You can also try carpooling or the cab sharing option. Then, you can also use bicycles instead of scooters. Lastly, you can always opt for walking a shorter distance.
Alternative use of fossil fuel
It would be best to try switching to other fuel alternatives. For example, don’t use wood for the fireplace. Instead, you can wear multiple layers of clothes for warmth. In this way, you can conserve energy. Additionally, you can also install solar panels on house roofs to convert solar energy into electricity.
You can also buy electric and hybrid vehicles to minimise tailpipe emissions. Finally, propose or discuss a plan with your mayor or any relevant local authority to promote your region’s renewable energy sector.
Reduction of personal carbon footprints
You can also keep a check on your carbon footprints. For example, you can delete unwanted photos, videos or emails from clouds and email boxes as and when possible. Unfortunately, this unwanted stuff takes a lot of energy, which indirectly contributes to air pollution.
You can also switch off the lights and electrical appliances of the vacant rooms. Try buying local products instead of imported ones. Be vocal about them. You can also discover your own country rather than travelling to different ones.
Air pollution is unpredictable; air pollution in your vicinity can affect people living in Asia and vice-a-versa. However, you can create public awareness about air pollution amongst your community by teaching and interacting with your kids about the importance of good air.
Educate youth by telling them the ill effects of poor air quality. Then, let your country’s future know that they deserve a better place to live!
How can the local authorities improve the air quality of your region?
You can always observe the changes happening in your surrounding nature. If you experience bad air quality or any activities producing air pollution, you can always concern relevant local authorities or the mayor.
Here are some methods which local authorities can do.
Proper disposal of waste
Improper solid waste management of an area is an invitation to many diseases and infections. In addition, burning solid waste in public can cause air pollution, although such practices are rare in the US.
The wastes are mainly disposed of in the engineered landfills and recycled before final disposal to landfills and waste incinerators.
In addition, waste incinerators help to convert waste into energy.
However, many researchers have claimed that gasification technology or waste-to-energy technology may release harmful gaseous contaminants. Thus, it is necessary that waste collectors rigorously segregate the waste before sending it to waste incinerators.
The best solution is to minimise waste at a personal level. Statistically, 70% of the waste generated can be recycled effectively. Thus, strive to recycle your waste at a personal level as much as possible.
Reducing air pollution from agriculture
Stubble burning is still practised in some parts of the US. This event contributes to the degradation of air. Local authorities can help farmers convert this waste into cattle fodder or be transformed into pellets as fuel. In addition, farmers should stop the usage of harmful pesticides or fertilisers to decrease air pollution.
How can I reduce indoor air pollution?
Maintaining household or indoor hygiene
You can decrease poor air quality by adequately maintaining indoor hygiene. For example, you can frequently clean your cupboards and open decks to avoid an accumulation of dust particles. You can then vacuum your carpets and sofas at least twice a week.
Make sure your doggies and cats are well-groomed. Use chimneys and exhaust fans in kitchens. You can also install an exhaust fan in washrooms. Always make sure you are keeping your house well ventilated.
Keep doors and windows open when possible. Maintain the health of electric appliances such as heaters, humidifiers, AC, fans, air ducts and so on at regular intervals of the year. Avoid overuse of strong perfumes or strong scented candles indoors. You can additionally use indoor plants to make your indoors more lively and fresh.
Indoor plants do the same work as outdoor ones- they help to purify indoor air naturally. These indoor plants are also easy to maintain.
The indoor plants which I recommend are as follows:
- Snake plant
- English Ivy
- Peace Lily
- Red-Edged Dracaena
- Boston Fern
- Spider Plant
- Weeping fig
- Bamboo Palm
- Rubber Plant
Air purifiers help to improve indoor air quality. The risk of getting air pollution-related diseases decreases due to the use of air purifiers. Air purifiers having good HEPA filters do an adequate job of filtering pollutants.
Air Purifiers I recommend are as follows:
|Name||Why I recommend it|
|Blueair Pro XL Air Purifier||99.7% of airborne pollutants such as mould, allergens, smoke particles and pollens are captured.|
|AIRMEGA 400S||Reduction of 99.97% of particulates of 0.3 microns. Also responsible for reducing more than 99% of VOCs, NH3 and CH3CHO.Washable and permanent pre-filters are available|
|Blueair Pure 121||Includes 3-part filtration system. Captures 99% of common airborne PM 2.5 pollutants such as allergens, odours, smoke, mould spores, dust mites and pet dander.An activated carbon filter removes common odours caused by smoke, pets, and gases (VOCs) and smoke caused by wildfires.|
The humidity levels in the office should be maintained between 30 and 50% in the office. This range helps to keep dust mites, mould and other allergens under control. In addition, when AC or heater makes the air in the room dry, humidifiers can maintain correct humidity levels.
Humidifiers I recommend
|Name||Why I recommend it|
|Amazon Basics Ultrasonic Cool Mist Humidifier||4 litre of tank capacityAuto shut-off feature and 12 or 24-hour timer settingsIt can be used in both seasons|
|MOVTIP Humidifier||Portable Mini-humidifier500 ml capacity, still produces longer mistsEasy to operate|
|LEVOIT Humidifier||It can be used for both seasons6 litres of capacity Easy to clean and has a remote control|
Dehumidifiers also work similarly to humidifiers. It controls the high levels of humidity in the office.
Dehumidifiers I recommend
|Name||Why I recommend it|
|Pro Breeze Dehumidifier||Can extract 50 pints of moisture a dayEnergy-saving auto-off systemBuilt-in Humidity sensor|
|HOmeLabs Dehumidifier||Eliminates moistness, odour controllerEasy to cleanRemovable water tank|
|TCL Portable Dehumidifier||20 pints of moisture removed per dayIt can be operated at low temperatures tooEasy to maintain|
Other FAQs about Air Quality that you may be interested in.
We discussed “What are the 4 causes of air pollution?” in this blog post. Firstly, we learnt about the basics of air pollution. Then, the article focused on the 4 causes of air pollution. In the end, the article provided detailed solutions to improve air quality.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What are the 4 air pollution causes?
Which pollutants causes chlorosis in plants?
Ozone causes chlorosis in plants. This is because ozone enters into leaves through stomata during typical gas exchange. As ozone is a strong oxidant, it causes several symptoms, including chlorosis and necrosis.
What are the five disastrous effects of air pollution?
The five disastrous effects of air pollution are:
- Respiratory and heart ailments in human beings
- Global Warming
- Acid Rain
- Depletion of the ozone layer
- Food insecurity
What are the primary cause of air pollution and its effect on the environment?
The burning of fossil fuels is the primary cause of air pollution. Combustion of fossil fuel is needed in the transportation sector, energy generation, and cooking activities. Such activities release a tremendous amount of carbon monoxide and other toxic pollutants into the atmosphere. These contaminants cause harm to human health, hampers flora and fauna growth, and create food insecurity.
How does air pollution affect global warming?
Air pollution also releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This contributes to the greenhouse effect. In addition, the carbon dioxide emitted traps a tremendous amount of heat into the atmosphere. This process results in global warming.
What effect does air pollution have on food crops and biodiversity?
Pollutants such as sulphur can result in excess acidification of the water bodies such as lakes and streams. This pollutant can also damage trees and fertile land. In addition, the atmospheric nitrogen can create an imbalance in biodiversity and harm overall plant communities and aquatic life. Moreover, ozone can damage the tree leaves.
Why air pollution is a problem?
Air pollution is a problem because it simultaneously harms crops, animals, and plants. Air pollution also contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer and aggravate climate change. Some of the environmental effects of air pollution are smog, hazy skies and eutrophication.
Arslan, S. & Aybek, A., 2012. Particulate matter exposure in agriculture. IntechOpen. Available at: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/38344
Causes, effects and solutions to improve indoor air pollution. Conserve Energy Future. Available at: https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-and-effects-of-indoor-air-pollution.php
Fast Facts on Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. EPA. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/fast-facts-transportation-greenhouse-gas-emissions
Smog, Soot, and Other Air Pollution from Transportation. EPA. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/transportation-air-pollution-and-climate-change/smog-soot-and-local-air-pollution
US Energy Information Administration – EIA – independent statistics and analysis. Electricity and the environment – US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Available at: https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/electricity/electricity-and-the-environment.php
Vehicles, air pollution, and human health. Union of Concerned Scientists. Available at: https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/vehicles-air-pollution-human-health
Volcano Hazards Program. Volcanic gases can be harmful to health, vegetation and infrastructure. Available at: https://www.usgs.gov/natural-hazards/volcano-hazards/volcanic-gases