This article discusses the effects of stale indoor air on human health. We further discuss how these symptoms occur, and how the contributing agents to stale smell make this happen.
What is a stale smell?
Stale smell refers to the characteristic indoor air which is not fresh, due to which the air has an odor, and feels stuffy. This can happen due to the buildup of certain chemicals as well as humidity in the indoor environment.
As a result, the ratio of air contaminants responsible for making the air smell stale to the oxygen levels decreases, making it harder to breathe as well.
What are the symptoms of stale air
Stale air has an unpleasant odour and may make a space seem stuffy. Stale air is unpleasant at low quantities, but at larger concentrations, it becomes harmful for people who are susceptible to its effects.
First, stale air may contain a significantly higher amount of water vapour than that for fresh air, in certain settings. Water vapour makes the air ‘heavier’, therefore making it feel difficult to breathe.
Another factor that can potentially add up to this is the presence of carbon dioxide or other dust particles in the ambient air.
While both too cause the same effects as that from higher humidity, the latter also can trigger allergic reactions in people, especially in those with pre-existing respiratory illnesses.
Breathing in significant dosages of this sort has been associated with a variety of side effects, including skin irritation, headaches, and lethargy.
People who work or reside in buildings with inadequate air circulation will perceive the impacts in a variety of ways. Excess humidity can cause weariness and exacerbate allergies in those who are exposed to it.
Dry skin and irritation in the eyes are common in those who have low humidity levels owing to poor circulation. Nausea, headaches, and nose discomfort are prevalent in warm environments.
Coughing and congestion are common symptoms of respiratory system discomfort caused by inadequate circulation. It can also exacerbate the symptoms. These symptoms do not affect everyone who works or lives in inadequately ventilated areas.
However, it is important to not take stale air smell in a light manner, since one of the main proponents of stale air is mold.
Some species of mold are linked to serious diseases, such as mucormycosis, which is caused when spores of black mold are inhaled or touched.
Factors that favour formation of stale air?
There are a few chemical species as well as biological components that are responsible for making the air seem stale. These include:
- Water vapour
- Mold and mildews
- Tight packed houses
- Poor ventilation system
- High number of occupants within an enclosure
Let us discuss these in more detail
In certain areas of the house, such as the kitchen, bathroom, basement, and so on, the humidity levels can be much higher in comparison to the other rooms of the house.
This is primarily due to the presence of water in the vapour form. In higher humidity levels, the air becomes heavier than normal, making it harder to breathe.
Furthermore, water vapour also promotes the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, mold, and mildew. These microorganisms further contribute to the odour, thereby making the air stale.
Mold and mildew
Mold and mildew are fungal species that grow favourably under conditions such as presence of organic material, high humidity, low sunlight, and low temperatures.
These conditions are found in certain areas of the house, such as basements, bathrooms, cupboards, air conditioners, and so on.
The spores generated from mold and mildew, alongwith their odor, make the air feel stuffy and produce a stale or musty odor.
In some cases, these spores can also cause serious health issues, especially in people suffering from a comorbidity, or ailing from respiratory illnesses such as covid.
Tight packed houses
Tight packed houses refers to the modern day construction of houses which utilises windows and doors that pack tightly i.e., have no gaps within.
While this is good in certain conditions, since it prevents the infiltration of outdoor air pollution in the indoor environment, as well as limits the heat exchange rate with the surroundings, especially in the winter season, it also causes poor air exchange rate.
Due to poor air circulation, the amount of free oxygen available starts to decline, while the humidity levels as well as the concentration of pollutants responsible for the stale air smell start to rise.
This effect is more pronounced especially in winters and monsoons, when the relative humidity levels are high and the temperatures are comparatively lower than the other seasons.
Poor ventilation system
Ventilation is an important feature in every house. Apart from the fact that adequate ventilation keeps the air fresh and prevents stale air smell, it also removes the indoor air pollutants by bringing in fresh outdoor air, while carrying the indoor air away.
However, some places lack adequate ventilation, which can happen due to various reasons. In such cases, the indoor air pollution keeps aggregating, and growth of mold and mildew can also take place.
A common example of this is seen in basements which typically do not have a natural source of ventilation. Articles such as clothes, furniture, and walls are more prone to mold and mildew than the other rooms of a house.
High number of occupants in a room
Higher number of occupants within a room causes a higher rate of decrease in the amount of free oxygen present, and will cause a rise in the increase in levels of carbon dioxide.
This effect can clearly be seen in public spaces with high occupants, such as school classrooms, offices, and so on.
How to prevent stale air smell
There are multiple ways in order to minimise as well as prevent the buildup of stale air smell within a room. Some of these are:
- Opening windows and doors
- Installation and regular maintenance of HVAC systems
- Regularly cleaning your house
- Investing in an air dehumidifier
- Using an air purifier
Let us discuss these in more detail.
Opening doors and windows
Opening your doors and windows for some time during the day helps to increase the air exchange rate with the outdoor air. As mentioned earlier, this helps to remove the indoor pollutants as well as the odor, while introducing fresh air.
However, it is important to check the outdoor pollen and mold count, since on days of high concentration levels, the smell will get further exacerbated.
Installation and regular maintenance of HVAC systems
HVAC refers to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Although in some places it is already present, it might be the case that certain places may not have it.
HVAC systems are especially helpful for places which do not have proper sources of natural ventilation, such as basements. They help to regulate the room conditions in a manner that prevents growth of mold.
However, one should also ensure that the HVAC systems are being maintained on a regular basis, since faulty systems as well as older units may sometimes contribute to the stale air smell.
Regularly cleaning your house
It is important to keep your house clean, especially surfaces such as beddings, carpets, or places where people usually are present.
Studies have shown that nearly 60% of total dust accumulated in the indoor air originates from outdoors. Within these dust particles, mold spores and other substances can be present, which cause indoor stale odor.
By regularly dusting surfaces and cleaning the house, there are lesser chances of accumulation of substances that give rise to stale air smell.
Invest in an air dehumidifier
As seen from above, high humidity levels plays a major role in the generation of stale air smell indoors. Therefore, it is important to regulate the indoor moisture levels.
This is where air dehumidifiers come in the pictures. These devices, as the name suggests, lower the humidity of the indoor environment, therefore keeping the air dry and hampering the growth of mold.
Other FAQs about Air Quality that you may be interested in.
Stale air settings in an indoor environment presents with symptoms such as skin irritation, headaches, and lethargy. Some species of mold are linked to serious diseases, such as mucormycosis, which is caused when spores of black mold are inhaled or touched.
However, stale air can be prevented by identifying the source, reducing the indoor humidity, promoting ventilation in the house, and by cleaning and dusting the house on a regular basis.
Do air fresheners and essential oils help to get rid of bad smells in the house?
Yes, air fresheners and essential oils can help to get rid of bad smells in the house. However, this is only a temporary solution, since once the effect of these fragrance compounds fades away, the sources of odors are still persistent, thereby causing the bad smells to occur once again.
As a solution, it would be ideal to rather identify the sources of unpleasant odors in your house and take care of them, as this is a viable solution that would last for a longer time.
Can appliances that regulate physical parameters of the air cause stale smell in the house?
Yes, appliances that regulate physical parameters of the air can cause stale smell in the house. This can be seen particularly in appliances such as air conditioners as well as HVAC (HEating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) systems.
If the filters are old, chances are that they are overloaded with pre-existing dust deposits. This causes a decrease in the air inflow rate for the device, due to which the air circulation gets impeded.
Furthermore, these devices can also develop dark and humid conditions, which help mold and bacteria to thrive. Therefore, these appliances may end up exacerbating the indoor air quality and will give rise to the unpleasant odor as well.
Why does my house smell like gas but no leak?
This can happen due to the presence of sulfur in the indoor ambient air. Sulfur, like gas, has a characteristic rotten egg smell. This can emanate from sewage or from organic discards as well.
However, it is not necessary that it will always be the case. Gas leaks are hard to spot, and even if it isn’t in your house, there might be chances that there is a leak in your neighbouring house.
In such a case, open all doors and windows, and contact a professional who can help better.
- Warner Service. WHY DOES THE AIR IN MY HOUSE SMELL STALE?
- Molekule. What is Stale Air? It’s Actually Chemicals Like CO2 and MVOCs.
- Molekule. How to Get Rid of Musty Smells From Your Home and Clothes.
- Home Made Simple. Stale Air? Time to Freshen Up.
- Signature Maids. 9 Tips to Remove Musty Smells from Your House.